There is no phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal, no func­tion­al food and no cos­met­ic prod­uct with­out inten­sive lab­o­ra­to­ry research. More and more indus­tries require pep­tide-based research. Not exclu­sive­ly, but in par­tic­u­lar the devel­op­ment of new active phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal ingre­di­ents demands the fun­da­men­tal under­stand­ing of pep­tide involv­ing mech­a­nisms. Many of those pep­tides in ques­tion are chal­leng­ing to com­pose, though just like many oth­er pep­tides nec­es­sary in the ear­ly under­stand­ing of micro­bi­o­log­i­cal mechanisms.


Crops, veg­eta­bles and fruits are pro­tect­ed from preda­tors and par­a­sites gen­er­al­ly by chem­i­cals or genet­ic mod­i­fi­ca­tion. Respec­tive­ly, colat­er­al dam­age like the pol­lu­tion of ground water with pes­ti­cides and her­be­cides is already caus­ing envi­ron­men­tal dam­age inso­far as these pes­ti­cides are linked to the dis­rup­tion of fish and amphib­ian sex­u­al biol­o­gy. Pep­tide-based prod­ucts com­prise the least inva­sive pro­tec­tion for crops pos­si­ble to this date as they con­sist of nat­u­ral­ly occur­ring com­pounds and can be used tar­get-ori­ent­ed and at low dosages.

Stock Breeding

In order to pre­vent the spread­ing of sex­u­al­ly trans­mit­ted dis­eases among cat­tle and oth­er stock, the impreg­na­tion of most farm ani­mals is per­formed via arti­fi­cial insem­i­na­tion. For that, semen is col­lect­ed from male breed­ing ani­mals and aliquot­ed. The por­tions are con­served by intro­duc­ing an antibi­otics cock­tail before freez­ing. While sev­er­al dan­ger­ous bac­te­ria have devel­oped resis­tance mech­a­nisms to the com­mon antibi­otics, cell pen­e­trat­ing pep­tides are well-known to con­sti­tute an alter­na­tive for semen con­ser­va­tion and stock breeding.


Due to their abil­i­ty to pen­e­trate skin cells, pep­tides are well-known sub­stances in cos­met­ics. They can treat sev­er­al symp­toms of aged or exhaust­ed skin which orig­i­nate from vas­cu­lar, mem­brane and com­plete cell break­down mech­a­nisms. Pep­tides can restore the func­tion­al­i­ty and firm­ness of skin cells and can there­fore effec­tive­ly treat skin aging symp­toms like hair loss, wrin­kle for­ma­tion and many more. The skin pen­e­tra­tion abil­i­ty allows the per­cuteanous appli­ca­tion of pep­tides e.g. using creams.

Antimicrobial Surface Coatings

Hos­pi­tals, can­teens and restau­rant kitchens, pub­lic bath­rooms and food pack­ag­ing – cre­at­ing ster­ile and clean spaces is an impor­tant recur­ring task. Where there is an urgent need of excel­lent hygiene, cor­ro­sive clean­ing or con­ser­va­tion agents are often used. Both sur­faces and staff suf­fer from harsh and cor­ro­sive clean­ing agents and the dai­ly clean­ing rou­tines. Ster­ile and hygien­ic con­di­tions can be put in place by coat­ing exchange­able sur­faces with antibac­te­r­i­al pep­tides or by the reg­u­lar appli­ca­tion of pep­tide con­tain­ing varnishes.


As pep­tides reg­u­late many process­es with­in cells, many of them are potent can­di­dates for phar­ma­ceu­ti­cals. Pep­tides may be rel­e­vant as inhibitors for enzymes or sig­nal trans­duc­ing pro­teins in cer­tain dis­eases or they may be tar­gets for anti­body medica­ments. Pep­tides can also be used as a means to fight bac­te­r­i­al or fun­gal infec­tions. The mk2 Biotech­nolo­gies syn­the­sis tech­nol­o­gy allows for the pro­duc­tion of high amounts of pure med­ical-qual­i­ty peptides.